The Solar Constant: 1.3661
and
The Earth/matriX Temperature Scale: 1.366085811

Charles William Johnson

A couple of years ago, we made the proposal regarding the Earth/matriX Thermodynamic Temperature Scale based upon the relationship between the freezing and boiling points of water. The proposal was quite elementary in fact, inasmuch as we simply suggested employing the relationship of the freezing point of water representing the unit one on the scale or, the boiling point of water representing the unit one of the scale. In fact, we proposed along these lines the use of two different options regarding the thermodynamic temperature scale. (Cfr., Earth/matriX Essay No.45, March 1999.) The Earth/matriX thermodynamic temperature scale employs the freezing point of water as 1.00, or the boiling point of water as 1.00, thereby creating the following system of abbreviated numbers on the two distinct scales.

The concept rests upon the relationship between the two events, that of the boiling and freezing points of water:

373.16 / 273. 16 = 1.366085811

273.16 / 373.16 = .7320184371

The advantages in using such a scale are obvious. Any temperature registered on such a scale allows one to know immediately the comparative values cited. For example, the boiling point of water is 1.366 times greater than the expenditure of energy of the freezing point of water when considered to be 1.0. Conversely, the freezing point of water reflects .732 percentage of the expenditure of energy attributed to the boiling point of water when considered to be 1.0. And, so on for any value marked upon such a scale.

Our proposal regarding the Earth/matriX thermodynamic scale continues to be forwarded by us. In an effort to establish its significance, we have continued to relate the Earth/matriX scale to other events concerning matter and energy within the Earth's matrix. A significant point concerns that of the value of 1.366, which we have been encountering throughout different fields of study. One of the more recent encounters concerns the appearance of the fractal number 1.366 now appearing within the solar constant, which is gradually becoming established at around 1366 or 1367 (its more historically recognized value).

We have made references previously to the significance of the solar constant and the thermodynamic temperature scale in previous essays and extracts in the Earth/matriX series, but with some of the most recent data becoming available now, we consider a more detailed review to be in order. In our mind, it comes as no surprise to find a definite relationship of proportion between the boiling point of water on Earth that involves the fractal expression of 1.366 plus, and a definite relationship thereof with the solar constant, which also reflects a similar fractal expression of 1.366. Both cases concern the constant relationship of the expenditure of energy on Earth within the solar system.

In a lay-person's terms, the temperature scale refers simply to the degree of hotness or coldness measured on a definite scale; that concerns heat expenditure in the field of thermodynamics. The different scales that exist to date are quite complicated, making it quite difficult to convert from one scale to another. The main thermodynamic temperature scales in use today are the Kelvin scale, the Celsius scale, the Fahrenheit scale, and the Rankine scale. Even a translation from the Celsius scale to the supposedly more scientific Kelvin scale, at times appear to be a forced comparison. For example, at certain points it is advisable and possible to distinguish a comparison of temperature readings between the Celsius and the Kelvin scale; for example: 1000 C and 1273.16 K. But, at other levels, such a comparison, because of the manner in which the two scales are relational to one another in their design, becomes purely academic and even senseless (or at least incommensurable). For example, consider the reading of 5,000,000 C which equals 5,000,273.16 K. This latter distinction causes scientists to employ either the Celsius scale or the Kelvin scale indiscriminately at certain high temperatures where the distinction of adding the 273.15 degrees Celsius appears to be superfluous.

Matters concerning the solar constant are even more difficult to manage. First of all, because not everyone agrees upon what the actual fractal amount of the solar constant consists of, inasmuch as the chosen value depends upon the exactness and the possibility of being able to measure the Sun's radiation on Earth. The solar constant refers to the unit of measurement concerning the amount of solar radiation received by the Earth from the Sun. One measurement concerns the number of calories (1.94) per minute per square centimeter on the Earth's surface; where a calorie is generally defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree of centigrade.

Now, the solar constant is also measured in terms of Wm2, or watt per square meter. In this case, the solar constant has had many different numerical expressions throughout the years, some of the more familiar ones have been:

1353 Wm2
1366.1
1363.
1367.
1367.5
1368.
1370.
1371.
1395.

From the previous data, one may see that the concept of a "constant" is actually rather variable. Supposedly the concept of a "constant" means that the particular event being observed or analyzed remains constant throughout the Universe. In this specific case, we are talking about the Sun's radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth, and therefore, we may comprehend a certain variance in the nature of the events, depending upon variables in the numerous conditions of existence. For example, at what position on the surface of the Earth one takes the measurement, and whether the measurement is made below or above the Earth's atmosphere, and so on.

Some of the more recent data regarding the solar constant concerns data gathered as of the Atlas missions, which began in March of 1992. Now, during the time period of 1978 through 1998, the mean value of daily averages for the solar constant from six different satellites yielded a solar constant of 1366.1 Wm2. This same source offers a minimum - maximum range of the readings for 1363 - 1368 Wm2. Adjustments yielded "a solar constant" calculated to 1366.22 Wm2. [Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium: Department of Aerology; http://remotesensing.oma.be/RadiometryPapers/article2.html.].

In our work on the Earth's matrix of the thermodynamic temperature scale, we have shown how a possible relationship exists regarding the geodesy of the Earth and the temperature scale itself. In that regard, specific ancient historically significant numbers also appear to be relational to the subject matter. The Maya long-count companion number, that of 1366560, and the Nineveh number of 1959552, both reflect specific relationships of the geodesy of the Earth as explained in our work on the Earth/matriX thermodynamic temperature scale. The Maya companion number, 1366560 and its pair, 1385540, both fall with the fractal values cited for the solar irradiance constant, or that of the radiant flux density on the surface of the Earth. The Maya companion number supposedly represents a day-count in reckoning time. But, one could easily employ its fractal expression for a comparative analysis of the thermodynamics of the expenditure of Earth as well.

The proportionality between the freezing point of water and the boiling point of water on Earth is that of 1.366085811, as we have drawn attention to for the past couple of years. Researchers today, with ever more sophisticated technology and space explorations and exact measurements, are finding that the solar constant reflects a fractal value of 1366.1 or 1366.22 on the average. Both events concern the exchange of heat within matter and energy in our matrix system of the Earth and the Solar system. Such a coincidence of fractal numbers does not surprise us in the least. In fact, one would expect such similar events in the exchange and expenditure of energy to be similar in terms of proportionality.

For this reason, we find the proposal to start adopting a thermodynamic temperature scale, such as that proposed by us in the Earth/matriX temperature scale, to be something that could assist in comparing events that have otherwise been perceived as being somewhat unrelated. In a word, it is necessary to consider the nature of the thermodynamic temperature scale of the Earth's matrix in relation to the Sun's radiation upon the Earth. Obviously, these two events are directly related in spacetime, and therefore must be related in our own thought process when we analyze matter and energy and their interrelationship, especially, when we find that the fractal expressions of these two events are nearly the same.

There exists a direct relationship in the Sun's radiation producing 1366.1 watts per square meter on the surface of the Earth, and the proportional relationship between the freezing point of water and the boiling point of water on Earth being 1.3661 (rounded off from 1.366085811) as well. To employ a temperature scale that would accommodate these particular events into a single system may represent a step forward in comprehending the myriad of relationships that exist in matter-energy, which we have overlooked for some time now. Further, an inquiry into the ancient system of reckoning may afford us even more points of comparison, especially, when we consider the use of such historically significant numbers as the Maya long-count companion number, 1366560.

Charles William Johnson
Jefferson, Louisiana
16 July 2002



©2002-2011 Copyrighted by Charles William Johnson. All rights reserved.
Reproduction prohibited without the written permission of the author.
The Solar Constant: 1.3661 and
The Earth/matriX Temperature Scale: 1.366085811

ISBN 1-58616-310-8
Earth/matriX: Science in Ancient Artwork and Science Today.
P.O. Box 231126, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.



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