Science Today
The Theoretical Interpretation of Spacetime/motion

    The Formula in Einstein's Equation
  1. Einstein's Formula: Mass Confusion E = mc2  is simply c9 =  c7c2
  2. Fundamental Physical Constants Notes: Fractal Multiples and Einstein's Equation
  3. Einstein's Formula: A Special Case: The E = mc2 equation is really E3 = m1c2.
  4. Einstein's Formula Stands for Powers of Speed of Light, Not the Conversion of Mass|Energy: (c9 = c7 c2 the Basis of E = mc2)
  5. Einstein's Formula and Varatioins of Redundancies
  6. The Formula in Einstein's Equation
  7. Einstein’s Formula: A Sleight of Hand
  8. Planck Mass and Planck Energy Questioned
  9. Planck Units of Mass, Momentum and Energy: c7 , c8 , c9 Respectively, Powers of the Speed of a Light Photon
  10. The Earth/matriX: Table of Selected Fundamental Physical Constants Derive ~ c9 Fractal Numerical Value ~ 1.956078711
  11. The Speed of Light in a Vacuum is Not the Maximum Speed of Matter-Energy
  12. Electromagnetic Particle-Waves [EMPW]: Superluminal White Light and Its Colors
  13. Superluminal Velocities: Electromagnetic Particle-Waves Always Travel Faster than the Defined Speed of Light in a Vacuum
  14. A Spacetime/Motion: Analysis of Relativity Theory and The Speed of Light in a Vacuum
  15. Misconceptions in the Theory of Relativity: "Traveling Back in Time"
  16. A Content Analysis of Selected Word-Concepts in Albert Einstein's 1905 Article "Concerning an Heuristic Point of View Toward the Emission and Transformation of Light"

Einstein's Formula: Mass Confusion

(c9 = c7 c2 the Basis of E = mc2)

Charles William Johnson

Earth/matriX: Science Today

ĐDecember 2010-2013 Copyrighted.

Einstein's formula supposedly derives from the following equation in one of his manuscripts from 1905.

From this equation, supposedly Einstein's formula was deduced as follows:

E = mc2

For around 105 years, physicists have been toying with this formula, praising the discovery and meaning of the square of the speed of light in a vacuum. It is affirmed that c-square holds the key to the equivalency and conversion between mass and energy. Einstein has been revered since that time as the father of the theory of relativity, as well as the one who discovered the importance of the factor of c2

Often, the numerical expressions for Planck energy [ fractal 1.9561 ] and Planck mass [fractal 2.17644] are substituted for the terms of E and m respectively in the formula.

E = mc2
1.9561 = 2.17644 x 8.987551787
1.9651 = 1.9561

Generally, that relation of equivalency is cited as representing the confirmation of the formula and the conversion of mass|energy or, energy|mass.

With those numbers, one is convinced that the formula works and that the importance of the c-square factor has been confirmed. Scientists often state that they do not know why the c-square factor works, but that it works. Besides not knowing how Einstein happened upon the importance of c-square, many do not know how Planck derived the numerical value for mass [2.17644] or, how some of the other Planck units were derived... more...

Planck Mass and Planck Energy Questioned

The numerical value for Planck mass cited by scientists is approximately, 2.17644 and/or 2.17645, whose value apparently represents a rounded-off fractal expression of the seventh power of the speed of light in a vacuum [c7], 2176.431087. The question then is what will become of all the computations based on such a thesis? And, I say thesis because the concept of Planck mass is a theoretical proposition without any material basis in actual measurements.
Consider the following example that I came across on the Internet:

"Planck Mass Conversion
"Weight and Mass Conversion Table
"Planck Mass, unit of measure
"The Planck mass is the unit of mass, in the system of natural units known as Planck units. The 2002 CODATA-recommended value for the Planck mass is 2.176 45(16) * 10^-8 kg, where the part in parentheses indicates the uncertainty in the last digits shown - that is, a value of 2.17645 * 10^-8 kg ą 0.00016 * 10^-8 kg.
"To perform conversions between Planck mass and other Weight and Mass units please try our Weight and Mass Unit Converter".

Years ago, then, scientists appear to have come up with the idea of assigning an approximate fractal expression of the seventh power of the speed of light in a vacuum to the concept of Planck mass. Also, they assigned an approximate fractal expression [1.9561] to the ninth power of the speed of light in a vacuum [c9] to the concept of Planck energy. These facts obviously occurred many decades ago. The question is why did they not inform everyone that they were using fractal values of the speed of light to assign numerical values and meaning to Planck mass and energy?
Whoever chose the 2.176445 value for Planck mass and the 1.9561 value for Planck energy, must have known the origin of these particular fractal numerical values that they were choosing, and must have known that they were being derived from powers of c. But, apparently, they kept said assignment quiet. Now, it is far too coincidental to think that they just happened upon these numbers by accident or, unknowingly.
The science literature in general shows physicists writing about Planck mass as 2.176445 without knowing its origin. And, it would appear from their writing that they think that its numerical value is derived from some kind of sophisticated theoretical thinking.
One may employ Planck energy [1.9561] and Planck mass [2.17644] for Einstein's equation as follows.

E = mc2
1.9561 = 2.17644 times 8.987551787 [fractal expressions]

Then, essentially one is stating a trivial expression as follows, trivial as mathematicians say, everybody knows this:

c9 = c7 c2
19560.78711 = 2176.431087 times 8.987551787

Now, inasmuch as c reflects the speed of a massless photon, theoretical questions arise as to whether the concept of mass is even in the equation. Also, the c-square [c2] theoretical concept may not be as significant as historically considered, since in this case, its meaning is derived as of its relationship to the same term, c, only repeated for different powers. One may also question how for decades so much theoretical writing in physics has been based upon a mere interplay of fractal powers of c. " Charles William Johnson "

fractal  numerical Value 1.956078711 fundamental physical constants drive

Einstein: Mass ConfusionISBN 9781586164694
Einstein: Mass Confusion

Paperback, 238 pages
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Table of Contents

  • Summary View
  • Einsteinīs Formula Mass Confusion
  • Einsteinīs Formula: A Special Case
  • Einsteinīs Formula and Variations of Redundancies
  • The Formula in Einsteinīs Equation
  • Fundamental Physical Constants Notes: Fractal Multiples and Einsteinīs Equation
  • Power and Roots of the Speed of Light in a Vacuum Cycles of Fractal Multiples of Power of c.
  • Historically Different Values for the Planck Constant and The Cycles of the Powers of the Speed of Light in a Vacuum
  • Plankīs Units and Constants Based on Power and Reciprocals of c, the Speed of Ligt in vacuo
  • Avogadroīs Constants: a Fractal Multiple of Planck Mass or c7
  • Addendum

  • Einstein energy simply multiplication

    Planck Units of Mass, Momentum and Energy

    Check out the brief commentary that illustrates how certain Planck Units are powers of c, the speed of light in a vacuum. In fact, Planck mass, 2.17644, is actually the seventh power of c. The implications for theoretical interpretations about units of measurement and the conversion of mass|energy are far-reaching.... click

    E = mc2  is simply c9 =  c7c2

    This equivalency of powers of c, speed of light in vacuo, means that c2 is not as significant as physicists believe; it is merely relational to powers of c, as is its own nature. Further, there is no treatment of mass in Einstein's formula based on the numerical values of Planck mass and Planck energy, as these reflect values for the massless light photon. The formula does not treat the general conversion of mass | energy, but rather simply fractal multiples of powers of c, the speed of light in vacuo. click ... sales: Harvard Book Store

    The Formula in Einstein's Equation

    The more one examines what has come to be known as "Einstein's Formula", the more it appears that Albert Einstein did not really create this specific formula, nor did he actually subscribe to it. E=mc2
    ...From the text, it appears that Einstein has his own reservations about the now famous formula, which through his own words seems to disassociate himself from it. The quote in the cited text: "It is customary to express the equivalence of mass and energy (though somewhat inexactly) by the formula E=mc2, in which c represents the velocity of light, about 186,000 miles per second. E is the energy that is contained in a stationary body; m is its mass. The energy that belongs to the mass m is equal to this mass, multiplied by the square of the enormous speed of light - which is to say, a vast amount of energy for every unit of mass." ...more ...sales: Harvard Book Store....

    table of Selected Fundamental Physical Constants Drive c>9 = 1.956078711

    Avogadro's Constant: A Fractal Multiple of Planck Mass or c7

    It is now somewhat understandable that Planck constants, Einstein's formula/equation, together with the Avogadro constant have numerical values that are derived as of c and also derive c and its corresponding powers. The interplay of these three main bodies of computations in physics requires further analysis in order to be able to comment on the concept of natural units. A glaring question is whether natural units will necessarily be based on the speed of a light photon. In fact, it represents a fractal multiple relational to Planck mass. .... more sales: "Harvard Book Store"...

    c 9 = c 9

    Einstein’s Formula:
    A Sleight of Hand

    by Charles William Johnson

    In basic math exponents are added.

    x1   times   y2   =   z3

    In Einstein’s famous formula two exponents are not given; they are hidden

    E = m c2

    Only the term c, the speed of light in a vacuum, has its exponent made explicit: c-square. The terms of E (energy) and m (mass) do not have their exponents given. Yet, in math, we know the rule is to add up the exponents in such equations.

    One might think that the exponent of E is one   (E1) and that the exponent of m is one also (m1). But, according to the basic rules of mathematics, this is impossible because exponents are added in equations of equivalency based on multiplication of terms.

    E1   =  m1  c2

    Addition of exponents (^): ^1 = ^1 + ^2 (trivially incorrect)

    According to the rules of math, the formula forwarded by over a century ago appears to imply:

    E1   =  m1  c2

    However, according to mathematical procedure this should be:

    E3   =  m1  c2

    Therefore, the term for mass (m) might be thought to have the first power ( m1 ). And, since c-square is given then E in relation to m1c2 would have to be E3 ---even though E is shown to have a power of one (E1) according to the formula. The expression E3 = m1 c2, not shown, obtains irrespective of whether the terms in the formula are the same or distinct as illustrated in the equation.

    One could imagine the three different terms of the formula in different equivalencies as of the same terms in three different ways, according to the powers implicit in the formula:

    E1 = E1 E2
    m1 = m1 m2
    c1 = c1 c2

    It is this last expression that has caught our eye for the past few years in our research. The reason the last expression, c1 = c1 c2 draws so much attention is due to the numerical values given in the science literature today for Planck Energy and Planck Mass. These values are commonly cited as:

    Planck Energy = 1.9560 fractal*
    Planck Mass = 2.17645 fractal *
    c-square = 8.987551787 fractal*

    Planck Energy = Planck Mass times Speed of Light in a vacuum

    1.9560 = 2.17645 x 8.987551787
    (significant fractal numbers)

    These values are supposedly to be interpreted implicitly as the powers for E and m are never given in the formula's presentation anywhere in the science literature.:

    E1   =  m1  c2


    The obvious manipulation of the powers of the terms E and m during the existence of Einstein's supposed formula is now made obvious. Throughout the science literature for over one hundred years this sleight of hand in math has been overlooked, accepted as a given tenet of the formula.

    Supposedly, the Planck values when entered into the terms of the equation tell us something about the equivalency of mass | Energy. This may not be the case, however; it may be a case of a mistaken math procedure.

    The fractal numerical values of the cited Planck constants suggest and/or express equivalencies in multiples/powers of the speed of light.

    Planck Energy equals Planck mass times c-square:

    19560.78711 equals 2176.431087 times

    These numerical values are fractal expressions of the speed of light in a vacuum; respectively.

    c9   equals   c7   times   c2

    When c is expressed as a significant value in scientific notation, as 2.99792458, the following obtains for the significant values of higher exponents, its multiples:

    c1  =  2.99792458
    c2  =   8.987551787
    c3  =   26.94400242
    c4  =   80.77608713
    c5  =   242.1606171
    c6  =   725.9792663
    c7 =  2176.431087 (Planck mass constant)
    c8   =   6524.776252
    c9 = 19560.78711 (Planck energy constant)

    next: document pdf

    The Speed of Light in a Vacuum is Not the Maximum Speed of Matter-Energy

    electromagnetic particle-wave path
    Superluminal Electromagnetic Particle-Wave Path

    Electromagnetic Particle-Waves [EMPW]:
    Superluminal Whit
    e Light and Its Colors

    Charles William Johnson

    Science writers like analogies. Here is one that explains why the different colors of visible|white light travel at different wavelengths and frequencies. The reason has to do with avoiding interference with regard to the transmission and reception of visible light specifically, and with regard to the entire spectrum of electromagnetic particle-waves [EMPW]  in general.

    Consider the similarities between a four-minute mile foot race and the speed of electromagnetic particle-waves [EMPW], i.e., the speed of visible light in a vacuum. Commonly referred inversely in the science literature as the wave-particle duality. Physically one must begin with the particle and then the wave of particles. Since the wave theory was developed first in science writing, the common usage continues to be presented inversely [wave-particle] as to how these occur temporally in spacetime.

    With that said consider the 4-minute mile foot race compared to the speed of light traveled in a vacuum during a measured period of one second between two points.

    Science writing today defines exactly the speed of visible light as traveled in one second, as being 299,792,458 meters/second. The measurement is obtained as an abstracted straight line between two selected points: A and B. The speed of light in one second determines the relationship of distance|time. However, given the fact that the electromagnetic particle-wave travels along a curved line, as in a sine wave, there is no presence of matter-energy along the abstracted straight line; nothing exists there.


    In a sense, something similar occurs with the 4-minute mile foot race as measured distance|time, between the Starting and the Finish lines.


    Runners occupy different lanes within the race track as shown, with adjustments made at the Starting Line in order that each runner runs exactly one mile distance. The object is to beat the 4-minute mile goal. All runners are required to leave the starting line at the same split-second or be disqualified. But, the object is to beat the other runners to the Finish First, ahead of all other runners.

    Visible light:

    frequencies 4-7.5x1014 Hz; wavelengths: 750-400nm

     With regard to the speed of white light, all electromagnetic particle-waves (different colors) leave at the same time and arrive at the same time. Necessarily for visible light to exercise its being, the different electromagnetic particle-waves of color leave point A at the same begin moment/time and arrive at point B at the same end moment/time, simultaneously together. 

    With the 4-minute mile race, the winning racers who reach the finish line at the same end moment/time; must have a run-off race, a tie-breaker. The colors in visible light must always produce the same arrival time.

    The racers in the 4-minute mile foot race have to stick to their own corridor and be sure not to invade the lane of the other racers, or risk being disqualified.  With electromagnetic particle-waves, something similar happens. Each color (EMPW) has its own path, or corridor within which it travels so as not to interfere with the other colors. Each color achieves this by having its own defined wavelength and frequency.


    Each of the foot racers travels along a different corridor that is supposedly the same length, although of a different shape along a curved path on the racetrack. Each color travels about a perceived straight line from point A to B in one second, each color along a different curvilinear path with a unique wavelength and frequency. 

    The different corridors established by different wavelengths and frequencies traveled by the white|color electromagnetic particle-waves avoid interference among the different particle-waves.

    And, this also means that the particular particle-waves of different paths, wavelengths and frequencies travel the defined one-second course at greater/lesser velocities among themselves. Further, all of them travel faster than the defined speed of light in a vacuum abstracted as of the straight line between points A and B.

    The obvious conclusion, as pointed out in other essays, is that the currently defined speed of light in a vacuum is a limited definition, and does not represent the maximum speed of matter-energy in spacetime/motion. Also, all electromagnetic particle-waves of visible light (white|color light) travel at superluminal speeds ---meaning above the defined speed of light in a vacuum. Beyond these limited observations, all electromagnetic particle-waves [EMPWs] travel at velocities greater than the defined speed of light in a vacuum.

                In essence, then, it is necessary to take into consideration the superluminal velocities of the different electromagnetic particle-waves and their unique paths, wavelengths and frequencies, in order to understand the nature of light and its purported measured velocity as restrictively defined by today's science writers.

    ©2014 Copyrighted by Charles William Johnson, Earth/matriX Editions, P.O. Box 231126, New Orleans, LA 70183-1126

    Superluminal Velocities of Matter-Energy

    Superluminal Velocities
    Electromagnetic Particle-Waves
    Always Travel Faster than the Defined Speed of Light in a Vacuum


    Electromagnetic Particle-Waves
    reasoning about the physical and material aspects of matter-energy in spacetime/motion

    Charles William Johnson, e-mail:

    Earth/matriX: Science in Ancient Artwork Series ISSN-1526-3312
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